Tariff concessions under FTAs

India Singapore Comprehensive Economic Co-operation Agreement (CECA):

Tariff concessions offered by India and Singapore to each other in Merchandise Trade are:

  1. Singapore’s Offer: Singapore has zero customs tariff on all tariff lines except for six products. Singapore has agreed to bind all their tariff lines at zero customs duty for India.
  2. India’s Offer: The key sectors in which India offered tariff concessions include electrical and electronics, instrumentation, pharmaceuticals and plastics. India’s offer has been categorized into four lists, Early Harvest, Phased Elimination, Phased Reduction and the Negative List. Negative List products, whether originating or otherwise, will enter into India from Singapore on the applied most favoured nation (MFN) duties. An additional list of tariff concessions was released on 15 January, 2008. Under the agreement, goods such as base metal, machinery and mechanical appliances, chemicals, plastic and rubber articles and textiles and textile articles will enjoy reduced tariffs.
  3. During the review of CECA in December 2007, India made a fresh commitment to offer tariff concessions on 539 additional items. Some of these items were kept in the negative list earlier- articles of base metals, textiles, machinery and mechanical appliances, chemicals, plastic, rubber and textile articles. At the end of this, 93 percentage of India’s imports from Singapore will be under reduced tariffs.

India Sri Lanka Foreign Trade Agreements (ISLFTA)

Different types of tariff concessions offered by India and Sri Lanka to each other are:

  1. The present status under the ISLFTA, as on the 2012, is that both the parties have eliminated tariff on all the products lines, except those which fall under the negative/exclusion list.
  2. The Government of India agreed to grant duty free access to all exports from Sri Lanka in respect of items freely importable into India, except on items listed in Annexure ‘D’ of this Agreement, in accordance with the phase out schedule detailed below:

Upon entry into force of the Agreement:

  1. Zero duty access for the items in Annexure ‘E’ of the Agreement;
  2. 50 percentage margin of preference on the remaining items except on items listed in Annexure ‘D’ of the Agreement. Concessions on items in Chapters 51 to 56, 58 to 60 and 63 shall be restricted to 25percentage.
  3. The margin of preference on the items mentioned in above shall be increased to 100percentage in two stages within three years of the coming into force of the Agreement, except for the textile’s items.

Concession offered by Sri Lanka Government shall provide tariff concessions on exports from India to Sri Lanka in respect of items freely importable into Sri Lanka, as given below: -

Zero duty for the items in Annexure ‘F’– I, upon entering into force of the Agreement. 50% margin of preference for the items in Annex ‘F –II, upon coming into force of the Agreement. The margin of preference in respect of these items shall be deepened to 70%, 90% and 100%, respectively, at the end of the first, second and third year of the entry into force of the Agreement. For the remaining items except those in Annexure ‘D’, the tariffs shall be brought down by not less than 35% before the expiry of three years and 70% before the expiry of the sixth year and 100% before the expiry of eight years, from the date of entry into force of the agreement.

The tariff concessions offered by India and Sri Lanka to each other in Merchandise Trade:

  • The tariff concessions offered by Sri Lanka are
  • The negative list of no tariff reductions in Annexure D of the Agreement (1216 items)
  • Immediate tariff elimination in Annexure F-1 of the Agreement (319 items)
  • Phased tariff elimination in Annexure F-II of the Agreement (889 items) 
  • Residual list for longer period for tariff elimination (2742 items)

India’s categories are a negative list of

  • No tariff reductions in Annex D (431 items)
  • 25percentage tariff reduction (605 items)
  • Immediate tariff elimination in Annexure E (1357 items)
  • 50% tariff reduction; and a residual list of longer phase out period for tariff elimination (2870 items)

Japan India Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (JICEPA):

Tariff concession pattern under the JICEPA for agricultural and manufacturing products are classified in to the following five categories:

Category A: Custom duties on products under this category is currently '0', as they have been eliminated on the date of entry into force of the JICEPA, which is 1 August 2011

B10 Category: Duties on the products under this category shall be eliminated in 11 equal annual instalments from the Base Rate to '0'. Duty reduction began on the date the JICEPA entered into force from 1 August 2011. Such goods shall be duty free, effective January 1 of year eleven that is 1 January 2021.

B15 Category: Custom duties on the products in this category shall be eliminated in 16 equal annual instalments from the Base Rate to '0'. Duty reduction began on the date the JICEPA entered into force from 1 August 2011. Such goods shall be duty free, effective January 1 of year 16 that is 1 January 2026.

B7 Category: Duties on products in this category will be eliminated in eight equal annual instalments from the Base Rate to free, beginning on the date this agreement entered into force from August 2011 and such goods shall be duty free, effective January 1 of year eight that is 1 January 2018.

X Category: Duties on products in this category is excluded from any commitments of reduction or elimination of customs duties.

India Korea Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (IKCEPA):

Tariff concession pattern under the IKCEPA for agricultural and manufactured products are classified into the following five categories:

E-0 CATEGORY: Duties on originating goods provided for in the items in staging category E-0 shall be eliminated entirely and such goods shall be duty-free on the date this agreement entered into force from 1 January 2010.

E-5 CATEGORY: Duties on originating goods provided for in the items in staging category E-5 shall be removed in five equal annual stages beginning on the date this agreement entered into force from 1 January 2010, and such goods shall be duty free, effective January 1 of year four that is 1 January 2014.

E-8 CATEGORY: Duties on originating goods provided for in the items in staging category E-8 shall be removed in eight equal annual stages beginning on the date this agreement entered into force from 1 January 2010, and such goods shall be duty free, effective January 1 of year seven that is 1 January 2018.

SEN (SENSITIVE): Duties on originating goods provided for in the items in staging category SEN shall be reduced by fifty percent of the base rate in ten equal annual stages beginning on the date this agreement entered into force from 1 January 2010, and such goods shall remain at fifty percent of the base rate, effective January 1 of year nine that is 1 January 2019.

RED: Duties on originating goods provided for in the items in staging category RED shall be reduced to one to five percent from the base rate in eight equal annual stages beginning on the date this agreement enters into force from 1 January 2010, and such goods shall remain at one to five percent, effective January 1 of year seven that is 1 January 2017.

EXC (EXCLUDED): Duties on originating goods provided for in the items in staging category EXC shall remain at the base rate prescribed in the CEPA agreement.

India UAE Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA):

CEPA provides for an institutional mechanism to encourage and improve trade between the two countries. The CEPA between India and the UAE covers almost all the tariff lines dealt in by India (11,908 tariff lines) and the UAE (7581 tariff lines) respectively. India will benefit from preferential market access provided by the UAE on over 97 % of its tariff lines which account for 99% of Indian exports to the UAE in value terms, especially for all labour-intensive sectors such as Gems and Jewellery, Textiles, leather, footwear, sports goods, plastics, furniture, agricultural and wood products, engineering products, medical devices, and Automobiles. India will also be offering preferential access to the UAE on over 90% of its tariff lines, including lines of export interest to the UAE.

 As regards trade in services, India has offered market access to the UAE in around 100 sub-sectors, while Indian service providers will have access to around 111 sub-sectors from the 11 broad service sectors such as ‘business services’, ‘communication services’, ‘construction and related engineering services’, ‘distribution services’, ‘educational services’, ‘environmental services’, ‘financial services’, ‘health related and social services’, ‘tourism and travel related services’, ‘recreational cultural and sporting services’ and ‘transport services’.

Both sides have also agreed to a separate Annex on Pharmaceuticals to facilitate access of Indian pharmaceuticals products, especially automatic registration and marketing authorisation in 90 days for products meeting specified criteria.

The agreement has stringent rules of origin and value addition norms to prevent third-country imports for making their way into India from the UAE, a global trading hub, at concessional duties.

To protect sensitive sectors where increased competition may hurt livelihoods, India has placed 10 per cent of tariff lines in the negative list that would not be subject to tariff cuts. The items include dairy, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, coffee, sugar, food preparation, tobacco, petroleum waxes, auto and auto components, coke, dyes, soaps, natural rubber, tyres, footwear, processed marbles, toys, plastics, and medical devices.

India Austrailia Economic Cooperation Trade Agreement (ECTA)

The Agreement encompasses cooperation across the entire gamut of bilateral economic and commercial relations between the two friendly countries, and covers areas like Trade in Goods, Rules of Origin, Trade in Services, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures, Dispute Settlement, Movement of Natural Persons, Telecom, Customs Procedures, Pharmaceutical products, and Cooperation in other Areas. Eight subject specific side letters covering various aspects of bilateral economic cooperation were also concluded as part of the Agreement.

ECTA provides for an institutional mechanism to encourage and improve trade between the two countries. The ECTA between India and Australia covers almost all the tariff lines dealt in by India and Australia respectively. India will benefit from preferential market access provided by Australia on 100% of its tariff lines. This includes all the labour-intensive sectors of export interest to India such as Gems and Jewellery, Textiles, leather, footwear, furniture, food, and agricultural products, engineering products, medical devices, and Automobiles. On the other hand, India will be offering preferential access to Australia on over 70% of its tariff lines, including lines of export interest to Australia which are primarily raw materials and intermediaries such as coal, mineral ores and wines etc.

As regards trade in services, Australia has offered wide ranging commitments in around 135 sub sectors and Most Favoured Nation (MFN) in 120 sub sectors which cover key areas of India’s interest like IT, ITES, Business services, Health, Education, and Audio visual. Some of the key offers from Australia in the services space include: Quota for chefs and yoga teachers; Post study work visa of 2-4 years for Indian students on reciprocal basis; mutual recognition of Professional Services and Other licensed/regulated Occupations; and Work & Holiday visa arrangement for young professionals. On the other hand, India has offered market access to Australia in around 103 sub-sectors and Most Favoured Nation in 31 sub-sectors from the 11 broad service sectors such as ‘business services’, ‘communication services’, ‘construction and related engineering services’, and so on. Both sides have also agreed to a separate Annex on Pharmaceutical products under this agreement, which will enable fast track approval for patented, generic and biosimilar medicines.

Note: This Article is for information purpose only. The views expressed in this Article do not necessarily constitute the views of the right holder of the portal or its employees. The information contained in this article is sourced from empaneled external experts for the benefit of the readers and it does not constitute legal advice. IndiaXports.com, its directors, employees and the contributors shall not be responsible or liable for any damage or loss resulting from or arising due to reliance on or use of any information contained herein.

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